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坐骨神经痛(Sciatica)
译者:胡佰文  
文章号:W117566  
2017/2/16 9:21:55    
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坐骨神经痛是一组症状而非某一种疾病。当坐骨神经或形成坐骨神经根腰骶神经根或神经丛受压迫或炎症刺激时,会产生向臀部及下肢放射的疼痛,有时伴有疼痛和无力,人们把这种症状称为坐骨神经痛。引起坐骨神经痛最常见的疾病有腰椎间盘突出、梨状肌综合征,某些腰椎或盆腔的肿瘤,也会引起坐骨神经痛。

坐骨神经痛是一组症状而非某一种疾病。当坐骨神经或形成坐骨神经根腰骶神经根或神经丛受压迫或炎症刺激时,会产生向臀部及下肢放射的疼痛,有时伴有疼痛和无力,人们把这种症状称为坐骨神经痛。引起坐骨神经痛最常见的疾病有腰椎间盘突出、梨状肌综合征,某些腰椎或盆腔的肿瘤,也会引起坐骨神经痛。

Introduction(概述)

  Sciatica describes an irritation of the sciatic nerve, which is the largest single nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve begins from several nerves in the lower lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum at the bottom of the spine. These nerves combine to form the sciatic nerve, which travel through the buttocks and down each leg. Sciatic nerve irritation can result from compression of the sciatic nerve roots or from inflammation.

  坐骨神经是人体最大的单神经,它受激惹时会出现坐骨神经痛。坐骨神经起于腰椎和脊柱底面的骶椎发出的数条神经,这些神经合起来形成坐骨神经,穿过臀部分布到下肢。坐骨神经根受压或炎症会引起坐骨神经的激惹。

Symptoms(症状)

  The primary symptom of sciatic nerve irritation is pain felt in the lower back or buttocks that travels down one leg, frequently to the foot. The pain can vary from a mild ache to a sharp, shooting pain and may sometimes feel like an electric jolt traveling down the leg. Muscular weakness, numbness or a tingling sensation down the leg and into the foot may also be symptoms. Pain in the leg is usually worse when sitting.

  坐骨神经激惹首先产生腰部、臀部的疼痛并向下放射到下肢,常常到达足部。疼痛性质从轻微的疼痛到尖锐、枪击样疼痛,有时会感觉触电样传导到下肢。可能出现的症状还包括肌肉无力、麻木或腿和足的针刺感。腿痛在坐着时往往会加重。

Causes(病因)

  Sciatica can be caused by a variety of conditions that cause inflammation or pressure on the nerve roots connected to the sciatic nerve. The most frequent cause of sciatica is the degeneration and rupture of a lumbar disc due to the normal aging process. The ruptured disc may herniate and push against a nerve, causing pain in the low back, leg, or both. Occasionally, trauma or an episode of heavy lifting causes sudden rupture of the disc and symptoms. Sudden twisting, such as when golfing, can also cause herniations.

  各种疾病引起与坐骨神经相连的神经根的炎症或压迫均可引起坐骨神经痛。常见的病因有正常老化引起的腰椎间盘退变和破裂。椎间盘破裂会疝出并挤压神经,引起腰腿痛。有时,创伤或负重史会导致椎间盘突然破裂并出现症状。骤然扭腰,比如在打高尔夫球时,也会引起椎间盘疝出。

Summary(总结)

  If symptoms include loss of bladder or bowel control, seek medical attention immediately. Minor sciatica will often disappear over time and it is rare for permanent nerve damage to result. If symptoms persist and worsen, or if they arise after a sudden injury, treatment may be necessary. Non-surgical treatments include controlling sources of inflammation and pressure, as well as physical therapy. Surgery is performed for those whose symptoms do not improve.

  如果症状包括大小便失控,应立即就医。轻微的坐骨神经痛往往经过一段时间后会消失,很少引起永久的神经损害。如果症状持续或加重,或因突然的外伤而出现,就需要积极治疗。非手术治疗包括控制炎症和压迫的来源,以及物理治疗。如果症状没有改善,可进行手术治疗。

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作者简介
胡佰文
单位:宁波市第一医院(浙江大学宁波医院)
简介: 胡佰文,男,副主任医师。1995年毕业于第二军医大学,从事骨科临床工作近20年,曾在第二军医
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